The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. After the WAB becomes law, the withdrawal agreement must also be ratified by the European Parliament. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially titled the UK`s withdrawal agreement from Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community. is a treaty signed on 24 January 2020 between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK)  which sets the conditions for the UK`s withdrawal from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the withdrawal agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021.  A number of clauses in the previous version of the act have been removed. These include the fact that the UK has launched the formal process of withdrawal negotiations by formally informing the European Council of its intention to leave the EU.
Sir Keir Starmer, the leader of the Labour Party, accused Downing Street of “replaying old arguments” and said the government should instead focus on putting in place a deal with the EU. On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead.